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Modal verbs are a special category of helping verbs that we use to express possibility, capability, intention, obligation, permission, and futurity. To form a contract, a party must have the legal capacity to do so. Something that is highly recommended (stronger than using should) We really must get together for dinner sometime. That must have been interesting. Necessity. The first is an appropriate response to someone who has just finished telling you a story about something in the past that exhausted them. Drivers must not make unsafe lane changes. 5. A strong recommendation. The passengers in the car must have been extremely frightened. Must and have to can both be used to talk about necessity. She must have been at home - her car was there. Both are depending on how they're used. The second is for the present moment. "She must have left the house by now; it’s nearly 11 o'clock." Must - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary Please provide me with some clarification on this. In American English, have to is more common. Obligation. The categories of legal person (which includes natural persons) which don’t have legal capacity are: bankrupts; minors (subject to the Minors' Contracts Act 1987) individuals operating under a mental disability (at common law) companies which have not yet been formed, and VS. In American English have to is the normal form. We must/have to build up a strong army to defend the country. "must have": we believe the action definitely happened. Hi, I'm completely confused as to how to use must and must have been. Mark Kappe is correct. Are both of these grammatically correct and they both apply to something that is thought to be lost in the mail? (present tense) Each of the drivers had to file an accident report. Both must and have to can be used to talk about obligation. The ice cream here is delicious. We use "must have", "can't have" and "might have" in the same way as the present perfect - the action we are describing happened, or did not happen, in the past and is still true in the present. To expand on his answer a bit, “must” is one of English’s modal verbs. Must Summary Chart Mustn't. British English often makes a distinction between them. You must try some. MUST – NECESSITY; Must expresses an opinion about what needs to be done in the present or future, and is based on one's personal sense of what is right and what is wrong. The mail must have been lost in the mail. Here are sample sentences: The mail must be lost in the mail. You must see the new Peter Jackson movie, it's fantastic. Must be lost in the car must have been lost in the car must have been about. That exhausted them more must be vs must have been one of English ’ s modal verbs be used to talk about necessity is recommended. 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