what is tar sand used for
However, a number of operators will soon gasify coke to supply the necessary steam and hydrogen. Was this Helpful? The mineral part of the Utah tar sands is largely quartz (beach sand) with some small amounts of other minerals. The Center and a coalition of allies have filed suit against the BLM, challenging its failure to comply with the consultation requirements of the Endangered Species Act prior to deciding whether to open these hundreds of thousands of acres of public lands for potential oil shale and tar sands leasing and development. • Energy and Global Warming Speight, in Gasification for Synthetic Fuel Production, 2015. 4 million tonnes) in 1978, to 77.3 million barrels (ca. The only state where small volumes of tar sand hydrocarbons are being produced from subsurface deposits (associated with heavy oil) is California. Study in these areas should continue to improve our ability to predict the occurrence and extent of biodegraded oils plus an improved picture on the filling histories of certain reservoirs. An extensive review of previously published information will not be given in this chapter, but it is extremely important to briefly review some of the more recent developments related to biodegradation. R. Kandiyoti, ... K.D. A brief treatment of tar sands follows. S.S. PENNER, ... D.D. The term bitumen (also, on occasion, referred to as native asphalt, rock asphalt, and extra heavy oil while in Europe and other countries the term bitumen often refers to road asphalt) includes a wide variety of reddish brown to black materials of semisolid, viscous to brittle character that can exist in nature with no mineral impurity or with mineral matter (sandstone, limestone, or argillaceous sediments) contents that exceed 50% by weight (Abraham, 1945; Hoiberg, 1964). A Waste of Water We Don't Have in the First Place. Hydrocracking consists of One method is similar to coal extraction and involves underground, open-pit, or strip mining. World Energy Council, in Encyclopedia of Energy, 2004. In the United States the majority of a barrel of oil Marchant, ... C.Q. In cases where a deposit contains tar (bitumen), heavy oil, and lighter oil, deposit is considered a tar sand if the majority of the hydrocarbon is not mobile at reservoir conditions. During the last drought here in Colorado, wheat crops suffered, lawns died, wild and commercial animals died. In the simplest sense, pitch is the distillation residue (the nonvolatile constituents) of various types of tar. The oil recoveries obtained from steam stimulation processes are much smaller than the oil recoveries that could be obtained from a steam drive. a well in its natural state". North America, a declining oil producer, may be self-sufficient in energy by 2020 due to rising production from tar sands, oil shales, and renewables. Accessing these energy sources entails much higher environmental costs. ”, URL to this page: http://www.investorwords.com/7727/tar_sands.html. This transition is already underway, with large areas of tar sands being developed in Canada and elsewhere. Flash distillation of the naphtha solution then yields the crude bitumen product and recovers the naphtha for recycle. Typical bitumen properties for general groups of tar-sands deposits. In spite of the high estimations of the reserves of bitumen, the two conditions of vital concern for the economic development of tar sand deposits are the concentration of the resource, or the percent bitumen saturation, and its accessibility, usually measured by the overburden thickness. This process was originally devised by K.A. In fact, the production of every barrel of shale oil sends 50 percent more CO2 into the atmosphere than the production of one barrel of crude oil. Hammershaimb, ... M. Paque, in Energy Developments: New Forms, Renewables, Conservation, 1984. Tar sands are a fossil fuel resource. M.G. attribution to the author, for noncommercial purposes only. The largest of these reserves-in-place occur in (Table 17.4) Canada in the Fort McMurray area of Alberta. In 2012, unconventional oil contributed 3% to global oil demand and this is projected to rise to only 6% by 2035 as can be seen in Table 11. The stabilized liquid hydrocarbon stream is the synthetic crude oil product of tar sands extraction plants. Tar sands (also known as oil sands) are a mixture of mostly sand, clay, water, and a thick, molasses-like substance called bitumen. They are awaiting approval to run pilot tests using their own proprietary solvent. Tar sand bitumen is a high-boiling material with little, if any, material boiling below 350 °C (660 °F) and the boiling range approximately equivalent to the boiling range of an atmospheric residuum. Aside from the fact that tar sands are about the most CO2 intensive fuels source, they also will place an unsustainable strain on western water resources - in additional to the new fracking plays we are seeing in eastern Colorado. The largest deposits in the United States are found in eastern Utah. The United States classifies tar sands as being measured or demonstrated (“the bitumen resource based on core and log analyses”) or as being speculative or inferred (“the bitumen that is presumed to exist from reported tar shows on drillers' lithological logs and/or geological interpretations”). The hydrocarbon-bearing rocks are variously known as bitumen-rocks oil, impregnated rocks, oil sands, and rock asphalt. A colloquial term for an oil reserve which are part of a natural mix of sand or clay, water, and a type of oil known as bitumen. As oil availability declines, energy prices will rise, increasing the commercially-viable reserves of these nonoil fossil fuels. In 2009 the Center joined a coalition of groups in filing two suits showing that the Bush-era BLM broke the law — first, by amending the management plans in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming without giving the public a chance to appeal the decision; and second, by drafting regulations for a commercial oil shale program without sufficiently addressing environmental impacts. Bartle, in Solid Fuels and Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquids, 2006. (If you know of others, please let us know in the comments and we’ll update this resource page.). The BLM refused to consult with the U.S. It is also used in road paving. However, the high sulfur content detracts from its wider utility as a fuel. Alternative names, such as bituminous sand or oil sand, are gradually finding usage, with the former name (bituminous sands) more technically correct. Table 4. Among these experimental in situ methods being tested are formation heating using steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), in situ bitumen combustion [50], or electrical resistance heating [51] to increase bitumen temperatures sufficiently to make it flow and allow recovery by pumping. This is particularly true for oil shale development, since an incredible amount of energy is required to squeeze a barrel of oil out of stone. As with oil shale, once released, the bitumen from tar sands must be upgraded and refined further before it's usable as a fuel source. The deviation increases with decrease in tar grade and extrapolates to ±10 to 12 percent for 6 percent bulk-weight grade material. Oil sands are either loose sands or partially consolidated sandstone containing a naturally occurring mixture of sand, clay, and water, soaked with a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen. In 2008, the BLM made roughly 431,000 acres of federal lands potentially available for tar sands leasing and development. The term bitumen (also, on occasion, referred to as native asphalt, rock asphalt, and extra heavy oil, while in Europe and other countries the term bitumen often refers to road asphalt) includes a wide variety of reddish-brown to black materials of semisolid, viscous to brittle character that can exist in nature with no mineral impurity or with mineral matter (sandstone, limestone, or argillaceous sediments) contents that exceed 50% by weight (Abraham, 1945; Barth, 1962; Hoiberg, 1964). During a steam injection trial, it was decided to relieve the pressure from the injection well by backflowing the well. These deeper deposits are yielding bitumen to the surface via various in situ techniques. The mineral matter in Utah sands contains very little, if any, clay material, as opposed to the Athabasca sands which contain as much as 8% finely divided clay minerals, some of which exhibit swelling in water. Calculated results of the assays are based upon the assumption that tar and water occupy 100 percent of the pore space. From: Heavy Oil Production Processes, 2013, James G. Speight PhD, DSC, in Asphalt Materials Science and Technology, 2016. James G. Speight PhD, DSc, in Heavy Oil Production Processes, 2013. A 2013 tar sands oil spill in a Mayflower, Ark. The tar sands situated in Alberta consist of oil-bearing sandstones. This difference makes for important processing differences, as will be discussed in the following sections. Profile of the Cold Lake tar sand structure. Large tailing ponds that must be maintained for many years will probably not be needed in processing some of the deposits. Forms of Tar. But, locally, there are issues as well. sulphur is altered and moved in order to be used in other industry Extracting bitumen from tar sands—and refining it into products like gasoline—is … However, it has recently been discovered that addition of gypsum (calcium sulfate) to the tailings pond reduces the settling time for the solids fraction to a one or two decades, at which time reclamation should be possible [44]. Bitumen is made of hydrocarbons—the same molecules in liquid oil—and is used to produce gasoline and other petroleum products. Oil present in these Lower Cretaceous sandstone deposits is very viscous, thick, and partially oxidized so that it cannot be recovered by pumping alone. The development of "oil shale" (not to be confused with "shale oil") and "tar sands" has been shown to be environmentally destructive, and water and energy intensive. Reproduction of all or part of this glossary, in any format, without the written consent of WebFinance, Inc. is prohibited. Inclined oil–water contacts are very common in the region. For surface mining and upgrading, it is approximated that 750 cubic feet of natural gas is needed per ba… Source: OPEC: World Oil Outlook 2012/IEA, World Energy Outlook 2012/BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2012/EIA, Energy Outlook 2012/Author's projections. The errors may lead to either high or low estimation of hydrocarbons. rights, including commercial rights, are reserved to the author. Alternative names, such as bituminous sand or oil sand, are gradually finding usage, with the former name (bituminous sands) more technically correct. One of the reasons was the somewhat circumstantial and tenuous nature of the evidence presented in support of such a mechanism, typically culturing anaerobic bacteria from oil field waters. Placing additional demands on western water is a non-starter. The stakes are high in the tar sands — for the communities and for the world. carbon molecules form what is called coke, a solid. The resource management plans and the EIS don’t only address tar sands development, but also oil shale. Paleopasteurization explains why it is possible to observe reservoirs of nondegraded crude oils at relatively shallow depths in the subsurface where one might expect the oils to be degraded. A Dean-Stark procedure [1] involving extraction of the tar by refluxing with hot toluene, measurement of the amount of water extracted, and calculation of the amount of tar by difference between weights of original sample and dry sample plus water, is the most widely used method of analysis.


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