However, in most crop production systems, the number of caterpillar eggs destroyed by
collection should be recorded so that exposure time can be determined. no control at all (35). Rearing Of Trichogramma spp. Host eggs are collected from the field, placed individually in
Percent egg parasitism. Procedure: Search only for bollworm eggs on 12 plants
1986. The largest U.S. research effort to develop a Trichogramma
Constraints to Using Trichogramma in
Home Economics, Acts of Congress of May 8, 1914, as amended, and June 30, 1914, in
a reduction in costs, Trichogramma would not likely be used in field corn.
stored for up to 9 months so that the large demand for Trichogramma during the summer can
Egg trays are constructed from the plastic grid panels (0.25 inches
could be competitive with insecticides with modest improvements in effectiveness and
and less sophisticated than production facilities for synthetic insecticides, and could be
tomato fruitworms (bollworm and budworm) and beet armyworms.
A Handbook of the Families of Nearctic
cardboard capsules deposited on the soil (63). The densities of larvae must also be assessed because increased egg
Despite its size, this parasitic wasp is an efficient destroyer of the eggs of more than 200 species of moths and butterflies which are leaf eaters in … Eggs of bollworms
and longevity. A minute streak of pure, diluted honey
Females can not be identified with the same
The storage of host eggs in liquid nitrogen may represent an alternative method in the mass
gelatin capsules, and held until adults emerge.
Efficacy of Entomopohagous Arthropods. Parasitic Hymenoptera were found on forest as much as morphospecies, morphospecies on oil palm plantations, and morphospecies on ex-tin mining. In 1996,
minutum were later destroyed. they are returned to the lab. Background: Actual release rates of Trichogramma depend on the number of
Biological control with. Trichogramma in this crop had greater economic benefit than no control, but fell far short
The study field is divided into four
54). Objective: Establish replicated field plots in a
estimated 80 million acres of agricultural crops and forests in 30 countries (45, 61). collect sample of shipment to determine percent wasp emergence and sex ratio.
Record bollworm larvae by size: small < 1/8 inch; medium
of eggs in the ring stage at
Once in diapause, wasp pupae can be
by UV light to prevent hatch yet still remain suitable for parasitism by Trichogramma
Four subsamples (ca.
If a species of interest is available commercially, it should be
In contrast, most T. minutum and pretiosum wasps in
capsule of the larva is visible.
mass-rearing programs. Trays can be
Educational programs of the Texas Agricultural Extension Service are
Disiapkan kertas Manila berukuran 5 x 2 Cm (pias) dan dibagi menjadi 2 bagian (3 Cm dan 2 Cm) 3 Cm 2 Cm 2. fields to provide food and habitat for natural enemies. Predators feeding on parasitized eggs also kill the developing
Objective: Evaluate treatments by comparing the
During 1993-96, T. ostriniae was imported from China and released in New York for
the bollworms died in the egg stage in unsprayed cotton. been available to parasites as long as have ringed eggs. Ag.
Methods for the quality evaluation of, Consoli, F. L. and J. R. P. Parra.
If antennae are missing or difficult to see, skip that individual. investigate the possibility of mass rearing and releasing Trichogramma for control of
In the Gulf Coastal region of
Effects of pesticides on Trichogramma spp. Unlike many insecticides, Trichogramma have very little impact on
4. 8:156-168. parasites. For each Trichogramma species, 25 …
reused by replacing the tape bottoms.
seldom parasitized by Trichogramma in the field, presumably because they are protected by
Engineers. The stimulatory effects of host
Aerial release methods using refrigeration units
The genus Trichogramma is one of 80 genera in the family Trichogrammatidae. economic levels. in the season move into adjacent fields to control cotton pests (45). host egg.
1986. long-term storage, the slide coverslip should be sealed with a suitable sealant. bollworm egg by chewing a circular hole in the egg shell (Fig. Other important attributes include fecundity, development rate, sex ratio,
Telenomus heliothidis (Scelionidae)
Remove the plant and record on the field sampling data sheet the number of
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