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This vibration causes the bond length to vary. Covalent bonds can be characterized on the basis of several bond parameters such as bond length, bond angle, bond order, and bond energy (also known as bond enthalpy). As per the molecular orbital theory, the bond order of a covalent bond is equal to half of the difference between the number of bonding and anti bonding electrons, as represented by the following formula: Bond Order = (½)*(total no. It can be found by drawing the Lewis structure of the molecule and counting the total number of electron pairs between the atoms in question. These include the iodates and periodates. 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